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Manchester MГјnchen Navigacijski izbornik VideoManchester, city and metropolitan borough, northwestern England. It is the nucleus of the largest metropolitan area in the north of England. In many respects Manchester could claim to be the first of a new generation of huge industrial cities created in the Western world during the past years. The Manchester Village Office and Manchester Public Library are located on the site of the former settlement. Geography [ edit ] According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of square miles ( km 2), of which square miles ( km 2) is land and square miles ( km 2) is water. Manchester (/ ˈ m æ n tʃ ɪ s t ər,-tʃ ɛ s-/) is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, leftbehindthemovie.com city has a population of , (as of ) and lies within the United Kingdom's second-most populous urban area, with a population of million and second-most populous metropolitan area, with a population of million. Manchester, VT () Today. Cloudy skies. Low around 25F. Winds light and variable.. Tonight. Cloudy skies. Low around 25F. Winds light and variable. Updated. Manchester has incredible opportunities and boundless potential. The story of our city cannot be told without understanding the strength and determination of its citizens. The people of Manchester have always been willing to work hard and take bold action when progress demands it.
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About Manchester. Famed for its soccer team and music scene, which has produced the likes of the Smiths and Oasis, this center for sports and the arts is a down-to-earth and friendly city.
The so-called Capital of the North has overcome industrial decline, bombing in WWII and by the IRA to become a confident and cosmopolitan city of well over two million.
It is well served by a bus and light rail network. Top attractions include the Lowry art complex, arcade Affleck's Palace and Canal Street gay village.
Travel Notice:. There are travel restrictions to this destination for tourism purposes due to COVID at this time. Check out our resources for locals and travelers with upcoming trips: ALERT Coronavirus COVID national lockdown underway.
Start planning for Manchester. Create a Trip to save and organize all of your travel ideas, and see them on a map.
Create a Trip. Essential Manchester. Go play. Places to see, ways to wander, and signature experiences. See all. Etihad Stadium.
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Montaj al Manchester. Stema Consiliului municipal. Motto : "Concilio Et Labore" "By wisdom and effort". Metropolitan borough , City.
Manchester City Council. Paul Goggins Lab Sir Gerald Kaufman Lab John Leech Lib Dem Tony Lloyd Lab Graham Stringer Lab. Sursa nr. Architecture Atkins, Philip July Archived from the original PDF on 25 February The Countryside Agency.
Archived from the original DOC on 27 September Retrieved 27 April Retrieved 21 July Archived from the original on 26 June Archived from the original on 1 May Archived from the original PDF on 16 December Retrieved 4 November Retrieved 26 February Retrieved 12 March Retrieved 5 April Political Geography.
Birmingham Post. Archived from the original on 20 July Archived from the original on 22 November The London Gazette. Retrieved 6 April Archived from the original on 13 January C: Total Population".
BISER Europe Regions Domain Reporting. Archived from the original PDF on 8 July Retrieved 18 February Retrieved 8 July Archived from the original on 4 February Archived from the original on 11 January Retrieved 1 February Retrieved 7 May Archived from the original on 2 May Archived from the original on 27 December Retrieved 17 January Audit Commission.
Archived from the original PDF on 10 August March Retrieved 4 March Manchester Region History Review. Manchester Centre for Regional History.
Archived from the original PDF on 1 December Retrieved 25 February Retrieved 30 September Retrieved 24 August Students and Qualifiers Data Tables.
Higher Education Statistics Agency. Archived from the original XLS on 9 July Retrieved 21 March Higher Education Quarterly. Retrieved 29 June Archived from the original on 7 November Oldham Council.
Spinning the web. Archived from the original on 10 September Retrieved 27 October Archived from the original on 6 November Retrieved 3 November Retrieved 18 December Archived from the original on 20 March Archived from the original on 21 March Midas Manchester.
Archived from the original on 13 August Archived from the original on 22 April Retrieved 9 July OMIS Research. Archived from the original PDF on 17 May Retrieved 17 July Retrieved 11 September Marketing Manchester.
Archived from the original on 27 October Retrieved 18 June Retrieved 3 February Greater Manchester e-Government Partnership. Archived from the original on 12 January Archived from the original on 4 April Archived from the original on 9 October Retrieved 6 March The Daily Telegraph.
October Archived from the original on 14 October Historic Highways. Archived from the original on 22 February Retrieved 19 January Archived from the original on 8 July Retrieved 25 November BBC Manchester.
Retrieved 26 November Archived from the original PDF on 20 May Retrieved 22 January Railway Gazette International. September Archived from the original PDF on 4 January UK Airport News.
TMC Ltd. Archived from the original on 2 December Urban Studies. Urban Studies Journal Limited. BBC Online. Commonwealth Games Legacy Manchester Commonwealth Games Legacy.
Archived from the original on 28 August Retrieved 23 September Retrieved 16 April Manchester FA. Retrieved 2 October Bleacher Report.
Retrieved 13 October Retrieved 2 May The website of dreams. Retrieved 2 June Manchester City FC. Archived from the original on 10 December Wigan Athletic Football Club.
Archived from the original on 6 January Wigan Warriors. Archived from the original on 12 April Retrieved 3 May Archived from the original on 4 November Minor Counties Cricket Association.
Archived from the original on 27 May The Victoria history of the county of Lancaster — Lancashire. Archived from the original on 1 July Retrieved 4 May Archived from the original on 8 February Retrieved 28 April Leigh Sports Village.
Archived from the original on 24 April Following the Roman conquest of Britain in the 1st century, General Agricola ordered the construction of a fort named Mamucium in the year 79 to ensure that Roman interests in Deva Victrix Chester and Eboracum York were protected from the Brigantes.
The Roman habitation of Manchester probably ended around the 3rd century; its civilian settlement appears to have been abandoned by the mid-3rd century, although the fort may have supported a small garrison until the late 3rd or early 4th century.
In the Domesday Book of , Manchester is recorded as within the hundred of Salford and held as tenant in chief by a Norman named Roger of Poitou ,  later being held by the family of Grelley, lord of the manor and residents of Manchester Castle until before a Manor House was built.
Manchester is mentioned as having a market in During the English Civil War Manchester strongly favoured the Parliamentary interest.
Although not long-lasting, Cromwell granted it the right to elect its own MP. Charles Worsley , who sat for the city for only a year, was later appointed Major General for Lancashire, Cheshire and Staffordshire during the Rule of the Major Generals.
He was a diligent puritan , turning out ale houses and banning the celebration of Christmas; he died in The Bridgewater Canal , Britain's first wholly artificial waterway, was opened in , bringing coal from mines at Worsley to central Manchester.
The canal was extended to the Mersey at Runcorn by The combination of competition and improved efficiency halved the cost of coal and halved the transport cost of raw cotton.
In , Richard Arkwright began construction of Manchester's first cotton mill. Manchester's history is concerned with textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution.
The great majority of cotton spinning took place in the towns of south Lancashire and north Cheshire, and Manchester was for a time the most productive centre of cotton processing.
Manchester became known as the world's largest marketplace for cotton goods   and was dubbed " Cottonopolis " and "Warehouse City" during the Victorian era.
Manchester began expanding "at an astonishing rate" around the turn of the 19th century as people flocked to the city for work from Scotland, Wales, Ireland and other areas of England as part of a process of unplanned urbanisation brought on by the Industrial Revolution.
Similarly, the chemical industry started by producing bleaches and dyes, but expanded into other areas. Commerce was supported by financial service industries such as banking and insurance.
Trade, and feeding the growing population, required a large transport and distribution infrastructure: the canal system was extended, and Manchester became one end of the world's first intercity passenger railway—the Liverpool and Manchester Railway.
Competition between the various forms of transport kept costs down. This enabled oceangoing ships to sail right into the Port of Manchester. On the canal's banks, just outside the borough, the world's first industrial estate was created at Trafford Park.
A centre of capitalism, Manchester was once the scene of bread and labour riots, as well as calls for greater political recognition by the city's working and non-titled classes.
One such gathering ended with the Peterloo massacre of 16 August The economic school of Manchester Capitalism developed there, and Manchester was the centre of the Anti-Corn Law League from onward.
Manchester has a notable place in the history of Marxism and left-wing politics; being the subject of Friedrich Engels ' work The Condition of the Working Class in England in ; Engels spent much of his life in and around Manchester,  and when Karl Marx visited Manchester, they met at Chetham's Library.
The economics books Marx was reading at the time can be seen in the library, as can the window seat where Marx and Engels would meet.
Manchester was an important cradle of the Labour Party and the Suffragette Movement. At that time, it seemed a place in which anything could happen—new industrial processes, new ways of thinking the Manchester School , promoting free trade and laissez-faire , new classes or groups in society, new religious sects, and new forms of labour organisation.
It attracted educated visitors from all parts of Britain and Europe. A saying capturing this sense of innovation survives today: "What Manchester does today, the rest of the world does tomorrow.
Many of the great public buildings including Manchester Town Hall date from then. In , when county councils were created in England, the municipal borough became a county borough with even greater autonomy.
Although the Industrial Revolution brought wealth to the city, it also brought poverty and squalor to a large part of the population.
Historian Simon Schama noted that "Manchester was the very best and the very worst taken to terrifying extremes, a new kind of city in the world; the chimneys of industrial suburbs greeting you with columns of smoke".
An American visitor taken to Manchester's blackspots saw "wretched, defrauded, oppressed, crushed human nature, lying and bleeding fragments". The number of cotton mills in Manchester itself reached a peak of in Cotton processing in other parts of the world increased, often on machines produced in Manchester.
Manchester suffered greatly from the Great Depression and the underlying structural changes that began to supplant the old industries, including textile manufacture.
Like most of the UK, the Manchester area was mobilised extensively during the Second World War. For example, casting and machining expertise at Beyer, Peacock and Company 's locomotive works in Gorton was switched to bomb making; Dunlop 's rubber works in Chorlton-on-Medlock made barrage balloons ; and just outside the city in Trafford Park , engineers Metropolitan-Vickers made Avro Manchester and Avro Lancaster bombers and Ford built the Rolls-Royce Merlin engines to power them.
Manchester was thus the target of bombing by the Luftwaffe , and by late air raids were taking place against non-military targets.
A large part of the historic city centre was destroyed, including warehouses, business premises, and offices. Cotton processing and trading continued to fall in peacetime, and the exchange closed in Traffic declined, and the port closed in Manchester lost , jobs in manufacturing between and Regeneration began in the late s, with initiatives such as the Metrolink , the Bridgewater Concert Hall , the Manchester Arena , and in Salford the rebranding of the port as Salford Quays.
Two bids to host the Olympic Games were part of a process to raise the international profile of the city. Manchester has a history of attacks attributed to Irish Republicans, including the Manchester Martyrs of , arson in , a series of explosions in , and two bombs in On Saturday 15 June , the Provisional Irish Republican Army IRA carried out the Manchester bombing , the detonation of a large bomb next to a department store in the city centre.
Spurred by the investment after the bomb and aided by the XVII Commonwealth Games , the city centre has undergone extensive regeneration.
Manchester Arndale is the UK's largest city-centre shopping centre. Large city sections from the s have been demolished, re-developed or modernised with the use of glass and steel.
Old mills have been converted into apartments. Hulme has undergone extensive regeneration, with million-pound loft-house apartments being developed.
On 22 May , an Islamist terrorist carried out a bombing at an Ariana Grande concert in the Manchester Arena ; the bomb killed 23, including the attacker, and injured over It caused worldwide condemnation and changed the UK's threat level to "critical" for the first time since Since around the turn of the 21st century, Manchester has been regarded as one of the candidates for the unofficial title of second city of the United Kingdom alongside Birmingham by sections of the international press,  British public,  and government ministers.
The City of Manchester is governed by the Manchester City Council. The Greater Manchester Combined Authority , with a directly elected mayor , has responsibilities for economic strategy and transport, amongst other areas, on a Greater Manchester-wide basis.
Manchester has been a member of the English Core Cities Group since its inception in The town of Manchester was granted a charter by Thomas Grelley in , but lost its borough status in a court case of Until the 19th century local government was largely in the hands of manorial courts , the last of which was dissolved in From a very early time , the township of Manchester lay within the historic or ceremonial county boundaries of Lancashire.
Manchester later formed its own Poor Law Union using the name "Manchester". Manchester regained its borough status in , and comprised the townships of Beswick , Cheetham Hill , Chorlton upon Medlock and Hulme.
In , Manchester was granted "city status" in the United Kingdom. In , Bradford , Harpurhey , Rusholme and parts of Moss Side and Withington townships became part of the City of Manchester.
In , the city became a county borough as did many larger Lancashire towns, and therefore not governed by Lancashire County Council.
In , the Cheshire civil parishes of Baguley , Northenden and Northen Etchells from the south of the River Mersey were added. In November , it was announced that Greater Manchester would receive a new directly elected Mayor.
The Mayor would have fiscal control over health, transport, housing and police in the area. Manchester is The city centre is on the east bank of the River Irwell , near its confluences with the Rivers Medlock and Irk , and is relatively low-lying, being between 35 to 42 metres to feet above sea level.
Much of the inner city, especially in the south, is flat, offering extensive views from many highrise buildings in the city of the foothills and moors of the Pennines, which can often be capped with snow in the winter months.
Manchester's geographic features were highly influential in its early development as the world's first industrial city.
These features are its climate, its proximity to a seaport at Liverpool , the availability of water power from its rivers, and its nearby coal reserves.
The name Manchester, though officially applied only to the metropolitan district within Greater Manchester, has been applied to other, wider divisions of land, particularly across much of the Greater Manchester county and urban area.
The "Manchester City Zone", " Manchester post town " and the " Manchester Congestion Charge " are all examples of this. For purposes of the Office for National Statistics , Manchester forms the most populous settlement within the Greater Manchester Urban Area , the United Kingdom's third-largest conurbation.
There is a mix of high-density urban and suburban locations. The largest open space in the city, at around hectares acres ,  is Heaton Park.
Manchester is contiguous on all sides with several large settlements, except for a small section along its southern boundary with Cheshire.
The M60 and M56 motorways pass through Northenden and Wythenshawe respectively in the south of Manchester.
Heavy rail lines enter the city from all directions, the principal destination being Manchester Piccadilly station. Manchester experiences a temperate oceanic climate Köppen : Cfb , like much of the British Isles, with warm summers and cool winters.
Summer daytime temperatures regularly top 20 Celsius, quite often reaching 25 Celsius on sunny days during July and August in particular.
In more recent years, temperatures have occasionally reached over 30 Celsius. There is regular but generally light precipitation throughout the year.
The city's average annual rainfall is Manchester lies at the centre of a green belt region extending into the wider surrounding counties.
This reduces urban sprawl, prevents towns in the conurbation from further convergence, protects the identity of outlying communities, and preserves nearby countryside.
It is achieved by restricting inappropriate development within the designated areas and imposing stricter conditions on permitted building.
Racial structure, according to the census . Religious beliefs, according to the census . Historically the population of Manchester began to increase rapidly during the Victorian era , estimated at , for Manchester and , for Salford in ,  and peaking at , in From then the population began to decrease rapidly, due to slum clearance and the increased building of social housing overspill estates by Manchester City Council after the Second World War such as Hattersley and Langley.
The mid-year estimate for the population of Manchester was , This was an increase of 7,, or 1. Since , the population has grown by 87,, or This represents a slower rate of growth than the previous decade.
The Greater Manchester Built-up Area in had an estimated population of 2,, In an estimated 2,, people lived in Greater Manchester.
Between the beginning of July and end of June mid-year estimate date , births exceeded deaths by 4, Migration internal and international and other changes accounted for a net increase of 3, people between July and June Compared with Greater Manchester and with England, Manchester has a younger population, with a particularly large 20—35 age group.
Since the census, the proportion of Christians in Manchester has fallen by 22 per cent from The proportion of those with no religious affiliation rose by The size of the Jewish population in Greater Manchester is the largest in Britain outside London.
Of all households in Manchester, 0. In terms of ethnic composition , the City of Manchester has the highest non-white proportion of any district in Greater Manchester.
Statistics from the census showed that Kidd identifies Moss Side , Longsight , Cheetham Hill , Rusholme , as centres of population for ethnic minorities.
The area also attracts large numbers of Chinese students to the city who, in attending the local universities,  contribute to Manchester having the third-largest Chinese population in Europe.
The Manchester Larger Urban Zone , a Eurostat measure of the functional city-region approximated to local government districts, had a population of 2,, in The economy grew relatively strongly between and , when growth was 2.
As the UK economy continues to recover from its — downturn, Manchester compares favourably according to recent figures.
In it showed the strongest annual growth in business stock 5 per cent of all core cities. Manchester's civic leadership has a reputation for business acumen.
KPMG's competitive alternative report also found that Manchester was Europe's most affordable city featured, ranking slightly better than the Dutch cities of Rotterdam and Amsterdam , which all have a cost-of-living index of less than Manchester is a city of contrast, where some of the country's most deprived and most affluent neighbourhoods can be found.
Women fare better in Manchester than the rest of the country in comparative pay with men. The per hours-worked gender pay gap is 3.
Manchester has the largest UK office market outside London, according to GVA Grimley, with a quarterly office uptake averaged over — of some , square ft — equivalent to the quarterly office uptake of Leeds , Liverpool and Newcastle combined and 90, square feet more than the nearest rival, Birmingham.
According to property investment research, Manchester is rated as No. This was attributed to a 5. Manchester's buildings display a variety of architectural styles, ranging from Victorian to contemporary architecture.
The widespread use of red brick characterises the city, much of the architecture of which harks back to its days as a global centre for the cotton trade.
Manchester Town Hall , in Albert Square , was built in the Gothic revival style and is seen as one of the most important Victorian buildings in England.
Manchester also has a number of skyscrapers built in the s and s, the tallest being the CIS Tower near Manchester Victoria station until the Beetham Tower was completed in The latter exemplifies a new surge in high-rise building.
It includes a Hilton hotel , a restaurant and apartments. The largest skyscraper is now Deansgate Square South Tower, at metres feet.
The Green Building , opposite Oxford Road station , is a pioneering eco-friendly housing project, while the recently completed One Angel Square , is one of the most sustainable large buildings in the world.
Two large squares hold many of Manchester's public monuments. Albert Square has monuments to Prince Albert , Bishop James Fraser , Oliver Heywood , William Ewart Gladstone and John Bright.
Piccadilly Gardens has monuments dedicated to Queen Victoria , Robert Peel , James Watt and the Duke of Wellington. The cenotaph in St Peter's Square is Manchester's main memorial to its war dead.
Designed by Edwin Lutyens , it echoes the original on Whitehall in London. The Alan Turing Memorial in Sackville Park commemorates his role as the father of modern computing.
A larger-than-life statue of Abraham Lincoln by George Gray Barnard in the eponymous Lincoln Square having stood for many years in Platt Fields was presented to the city by Mr and Mrs Charles Phelps Taft of Cincinnati , Ohio, to mark the part Lancashire played in the cotton famine and American Civil War of — Manchester has six designated local nature reserves : Chorlton Water Park , Blackley Forest, Clayton Vale and Chorlton Ees, Ivy Green, Boggart Hole Clough and Highfield Country Park.
Manchester Liverpool Road was the world's first purpose-built passenger and goods railway station  and served as the Manchester terminus on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway — the world's first inter-city passenger railway.
It is still extant and its buildings form part of the Museum of Science and Industry. Two of the city's four main line termini did not survive the s: Manchester Central and Manchester Exchange each closed in In addition, Manchester Mayfield station closed to passenger services in ; its buildings and platforms are still extant, next to Piccadilly station , but are due to be redeveloped in the s.
Today, the city is well served by its rail network although it is now working to capacity,  and is at the centre of an extensive county-wide railway network, including the West Coast Main Line , with two mainline stations: Manchester Piccadilly and Manchester Victoria.
The Manchester station group — comprising Manchester Piccadilly, Manchester Victoria, Manchester Oxford Road and Deansgate — is the third busiest in the United Kingdom, with Recent improvements in Manchester as part of the Northern Hub in the s have been numerous electrification schemes into and through Manchester, redevelopment of Victoria station and construction of the Ordsall Chord directly linking Victoria and Piccadilly.
Manchester city centre suffers from constrained rail capacity that frequently leads to delays and cancellations — a report found that all three major Manchester stations are among the top ten worst stations in the United Kingdom for punctuality, with Oxford Road deemed the worst in the country.
Manchester became the first city in the UK to acquire a modern light rail tram system when the Manchester Metrolink opened in In —, The city has one of the most extensive bus networks outside London, with over 50 bus companies operating in the Greater Manchester region radiating from the city.
Later these were taken over by First Greater Manchester and Stagecoach Manchester. Much of the First Greater Manchester business was sold to Diamond Bus North West and Go North West in Manchester Airport serves Manchester, Northern England and North Wales.
The airport is the third busiest in the United Kingdom , with over double the number of annual passengers of the next busiest non-London airport.
The airport has the highest rating available: " Category 10 ", encompassing an elite group of airports able to handle " Code F " aircraft, including the Airbus A and Boeing A smaller City Airport Manchester exists 9.
It was Manchester's first municipal airport and became the site of the first air traffic control tower in the UK, and the first municipal airfield in the UK to be licensed by the Air Ministry.
It also has a flight school ,  and both the Greater Manchester Police Air Support Unit and the North West Air Ambulance have helicopters based there.
An extensive canal network, including the Manchester Ship Canal , was built to carry freight from the Industrial Revolution onward; the canals are still maintained, though now largely repurposed for leisure use.
Cycling for transportation and leisure enjoys popularity in Manchester and the city also plays a major role in British cycle racing. Manchester was credited as the main driving force behind British indie music of the s led by The Smiths, later including The Stone Roses, Happy Mondays , Inspiral Carpets , and James.
Although from southern England, The Chemical Brothers subsequently formed in Manchester. Previously, notable Manchester acts of the s include The Hollies , Herman's Hermits , and Davy Jones of the Monkees famed in the mids for their albums and their American TV show , and the earlier Bee Gees , who grew up in Chorlton.
Singer-songwriter Ren Harvieu is also from Greater Manchester. Its main pop music venue is Manchester Arena , voted "International Venue of the Year" in  With over 21, seats, it is the largest arena of its type in Europe.
In the s, the city was home to a so-called "Manchester School" of classical composers, which was composed of Harrison Birtwistle , Peter Maxwell Davies , David Ellis and Alexander Goehr.
Manchester is a centre for musical education: the Royal Northern College of Music and Chetham's School of Music.
The main classical music venue was the Free Trade Hall on Peter Street until the opening in of the 2, seat Bridgewater Hall. Brass band music, a tradition in the north of England, is important to Manchester's musical heritage;  some of the UK's leading bands, such as the CWS Manchester Band and the Fairey Band , are from Manchester and surrounding areas, and the Whit Friday brass-band contest takes place annually in the neighbouring areas of Saddleworth and Tameside.
Manchester occupies a featureless plain made up of river gravels and the glacially transported debris known as drift. It lies at a height of feet 40 metres above sea level , enclosed by the slopes of the Pennine range on the east and the upland spur of Rossendale on the north.
Much of the plain is underlain by coal measures; mining was once widespread but had ceased by the end of the 20th century. Manchester, the central city, is situated on the east bank of the River Irwell and has an elongated north-south extent, the result of late 19th- and early 20th-century territorial expansion.
In the city extended its boundaries far to the south beyond the River Mersey, to annex 9 square miles 23 square km of the northern portion of the former administrative county of Cheshire.
Two large metropolitan boroughs adjoin the city of Manchester on the west and southwest: Salford and Trafford.
Together these three administrative units form the chief concentration of commercial employment. From this core, suburbs have spread far to the west and south, chiefly within the unitary authority of Cheshire East.
To the north and east of Manchester, smaller industrial towns and villages, mixed with suburban development, merge into one another and extend as a continuous urban area to the foot of the encircling upland.
Close to the upland margin lies a ring of large towns, which were traditionally the major centres of the cotton-spinning industry—Bolton, Bury , and Rochdale to the north and Oldham, Ashton-under-Lyne, and Stockport to the east.
The urban structure of metropolitan Manchester is determined largely by its industrial zones.